History of medicine

the_Anatomy_LessonAll human societies have medical beliefs that provide explanations for birth, death, and disease. Throughout history, illness has been attributed to witchcraft, demons, adverse astral influence, or the will of the gods. These ideas still retain some power, with faith healing and shrines still used in some places, although the rise of scientific medicine over the past millennium has altered or replaced mysticism in most cases.

Through human history, medicine, and medical care has been critical for many civilizations, helping them to be more advanced. From the ancient egyptians with one of the most advanced medical systems, in pharaonic times, keeping their people as one of the most healthiest in the ancient times. Also in those days, first recorded surgeries was executed, and born several of the actual medical specialities (being several of them not so advanced as now). However was the babylonians that makes evolves the first times of medicine, introducing concepts likes diagnosis, prognosis, and medical examination (between several other things).

Prehistoric medicine

Although there is no record to establish when plants were first used for medicinal purposes (herbalism), the use of plants as healing agents is an ancient practice. Over time through emulation of the behavior of fauna a medicinal knowledge base developed and was passed between generations. As tribal culture specialized specific castes, Shamans and apothecaries performed the 'niche occupation' of healing.


Ancient Egypt developed a large, varied and fruitful medical tradition. Herodotus described the Egyptians as "the healthiest of all men, next to the Libyans",[1] due to the dry climate and the notable public health system that they possessed. According to him, "[t]he practice of medicine is so specialized among them that each physician is a healer of one disease and no more." Although Egyptian medicine, to a good extent, dealt with the supernatural,[2] it eventually developed a practical use in the fields of anatomy, public health, and clinical diagnostics.
Medical information in the Edwin Smith Papyrus[3] may date to a time as early as 3000 BC.[4] The earliest known surgery in Egypt was performed in Egypt around 2750 BC. Imhotep in the 3rd dynasty is sometimes credited with being the founder of ancient Egyptian medicine and with being the original author of the Edwin Smith Papyrus, detailing cures, ailments and anatomical observations. The Edwin Smith Papyrus is regarded as a copy of several earlier works and was written circa 1600 BC. It is an ancient textbook on surgery almost completely devoid of magical thinking and describes in exquisite detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments.[5]
Conversely, the Ebers papyrus[6] (c. 1550 BC) is full of incantations and foul applications meant to turn away disease-causing demons, and other superstition. The Ebers papyrus also provides our earliest possible documentation of ancient awareness of tumors, but ancient medical terminology being badly understood, cases Ebers 546 and 547[vague] for instance may refer to simple swellings.
The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus[7] treats women's complaints, including problems with conception. Thirty four cases detailing diagnosis and treatment survive, some of them fragmentarily.[8] Dating to 1800 BC, it is the oldest surviving medical text of any kind.
Medical institutions, referred to as Houses of Life are known to have been established in ancient Egypt as early as the 1st Dynasty. By the time of the 19th Dynasty some workers enjoyed such benefits as medical insurance, pensions and sick leave.[citation needed]
The earliest known physician is also credited to ancient Egypt: Hesy-Ra, "Chief of Dentists and Physicians" for King Djoser in the 27th century BC.[9] Also, the earliest known woman physician, Peseshet, practiced in Ancient Egypt at the time of the 4th dynasty. Her title was "Lady Overseer of the Lady Physicians." In addition to her supervisory role, Peseshet trained midwives at an ancient Egyptian medical school in Sais.

Mesopotamia and Levant
The oldest Babylonian texts on medicine date back to the Old Babylonian period in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. The most extensive Babylonian medical text, however, is the Diagnostic Handbook written by the physician Esagil-kin-apli of Borsippa,[10] during the reign of the Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina (1069-1046 BC).[11]
Along with contemporary ancient Egyptian medicine, the Babylonians introduced the concepts of diagnosis, prognosis, physical examination, and medical prescriptions. In addition, the Diagnostic Handbook introduced the methods of therapy and etiology and the use of empiricism, logic and rationality in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. The text contains a list of medical symptoms and often detailed empirical observations along with logical rules used in combining observed symptoms on the body of a patient with its diagnosis and prognosis.[12]
The Diagnostic Handbook was based on a logical set of axioms and assumptions, including the modern view that through the examination and inspection of the symptoms of a patient, it is possible to determine the patient's disease, its aetiology and future development, and the chances of the patient's recovery. The symptoms and diseases of a patient were treated through therapeutic means such as bandages, creams and pills.[10]
Most of our knowledge of ancient Hebrew medicine during the 1st millennium BC comes from the Torah, i.e. the Five Books of Moses, which contain various health related laws and rituals, such as isolating infected people (Leviticus 13:45-46), washing after handling a dead body (Numbers 19:11-19) and burying excrement away from camp (Deuteronomy 23:12-13). While the observance of these statutes would have and do lead to several health benefits, Jewish belief commands that these rituals and prohibitions be kept purely to fulfill the will of God with no ulterior motive. Max Neuberger, writing in his "History of Medicine" says
"The commands concern prophylaxis and suppression of epidemics, suppression of venereal disease and prostitution, care of the skin, baths, food, housing and clothing, regulation of labour, sexual life, discipline of the people, etc. Many of these commands, such as Sabbath rest, circumcision, laws concerning food (interdiction of blood and pork), measures concerning menstruating and lying-in women and those suffering from gonorrhea, isolation of lepers, and hygiene of the camp, are, in view of the conditions of the climate, surprisingly rational." (Neuburger: History of Medicine, Oxford University Press, 1910, Vol. I, p. 38).

The Atharvaveda, a sacred text of Hinduism dating from the Early Iron Age, is the first Indian text dealing with medicine, like the medicine of the Ancient Near East based on concepts of the exorcism of demons and magic. The Atharvaveda also contain prescriptions of herbs for various ailments. The use of herbs to treat ailments would later form a large part of Ayurveda.
In the first millennium BCE, there emerges in post-Vedic India the traditional medicine system known as Ayurveda, meaning the "complete knowledge for long life". Its two most famous texts belong to the schools of Charaka, born c. 600 BCE, and Sushruta, born 600 BCE. While these writings display some limited continuities with the earlier medical ideas known from the Vedas, historians[who?] have been able to demonstrate direct historical connections between early Ayurveda and the early literature of the Buddhists and Jains. The earliest foundations of Ayurveda were built on a synthesis of traditional herbal practices together with a massive addition of theoretical conceptualizations, new nosologies and new therapies dating from about 400 BCE onwards, and coming out of the communities of thinkers who included the Buddha and others.[13]
According to the compendium of Charaka, the Charakasamhitā, health and disease are not predetermined and life may be prolonged by human effort. The compendium of Suśruta, the Suśrutasamhitā defines the purpose of medicine to cure the diseases of the sick, protect the healthy, and to prolong life. Both these ancient compendia include details of the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments. The Suśrutasamhitā is notable for describing procedures on various forms of surgery, including rhinoplasty, the repair of torn ear lobes, perineal lithotomy, cataract surgery, and several other excisions and other surgical procedures. Most remarkable is Sushruta's penchant for scientific classification: His medical treatise consists of 184 chapters, 1,120 conditions are listed, including injuries and illnesses relating to ageing and mental illness. The Sushruta Samhita describe 125 surgical instrument, 300 surgical procedures and classifies human surgery in 8 categories [4]
The Ayurvedic classics mention eight branches of medicine: kāyācikitsā (internal medicine), śalyacikitsā (surgery including anatomy), śālākyacikitsā (eye, ear, nose, and throat diseases), kaumārabhṛtya (pediatrics), bhūtavidyā (spirit medicine), and agada tantra (toxicology), rasāyana (science of rejuvenation), and vājīkaraṇa (aphrodisiacs, mainly for men). Apart from learning these, the student of Āyurveda was expected to know ten arts that were indispensable in the preparation and application of his medicines: distillation, operative skills, cooking, horticulture, metallurgy, sugar manufacture, pharmacy, analysis and separation of minerals, compounding of metals, and preparation of alkalis. The teaching of various subjects was done during the instruction of relevant clinical subjects. For example, teaching of anatomy was a part of the teaching of surgery, embryology was a part of training in pediatrics and obstetrics, and the knowledge of physiology and pathology was interwoven in the teaching of all the clinical disciplines. The normal length of the student's training appears to have been seven years. But the physician was to continue to learn.[14]
As an alternative form of medicine in India, Unani medicine got deep roots and royal patronage during medieval times. It progressed during Indian sultanate and mughal periods. Unani medicine is very close to Ayurveda. Both are based on theory of the presence of the elements (in Unani, they are considered to be fire, water, earth and air) in the human body. According to followers of Unani medicine, these elements are present in different fluids and their balance leads to health and their imbalance leads to illness.[15]

China also developed a large body of traditional medicine. Much of the philosophy of traditional Chinese medicine derived from empirical observations of disease and illness by Taoist physicians and reflects the classical Chinese belief that individual human experiences express causative principles effective in the environment at all scales. These causative principles, whether material, essential, or mystical, correlate as the expression of the natural order of the universe.
The foundational text of Chinese medicine is the Huangdi neijing, or Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon, which is composed of two books: the Suwen 素問 ("Basic Questions") and the Lingshu 靈樞 ("Divine Pivot"). Although the Neijing has long been attributed to the mythical Yellow Emperor (twenty-7th century BC), Chinese scholars started doubting this attribution as early as the 11th century and now usually date the Neijing to the late Warring States period (5th century-221 BC).[16] Because the medical "silk manuscripts" dating from around 200 BC that were excavated in the 1970s from the tomb of a Han-dynasty noble in Mawangdui are undoubtedly ancestors of the received Neijing, scholars like Nathan Sivin now argue that the Neijing was first compiled in the 1st century BC.[17]
During the Han dynasty, Zhang Zhongjing, who was mayor of Changsha near the end of the 2nd century AD, wrote a Treatise on Cold Damage, which contains the earliest known reference to the Neijing Suwen. The Jin Dynasty practitioner and advocate of acupuncture and moxibustion, Huangfu Mi (215-282), also quotes the Yellow Emperor in his Jiayi jing, ca. 265. During the Tang Dynasty, Wang Bing claimed to have located a copy of the originals of the Suwen, which he expanded and edited substantially. This work was revisited by an imperial commission during the 11th century, and the result is our best extant representation of the foundational roots of traditional Chinese medicine.

Greek and Roman medicine
The first known Greek medical school opened in Cnidus in 700 BC. Alcmaeon, author of the first anatomical work, worked at this school, and it was here that the practice of observing patients was established. As was the case elsewhere, the ancient Greeks developed a humoral medicine system where treatment sought to restore the balance of humours within the body.
Temples dedicated to the healer-god Asclepius, known as Asclepieia (Greek: Ἀσκληπιεῖα, sing. Ἀσκληπιεῖον, 'Asclepieion), functioned as centers of medical advice, prognosis, and healing.[18] At these shrines, patients would enter a dream-like state of induced sleep known as "enkoimesis" (Greek: ενκοίμησις) not unlike anesthesia, in which they either received guidance from the deity in a dream or were cured by surgery.[19] Asclepeia provided carefully controlled spaces conducive to healing and fulfilled several of the requirements of institutions created for healing.[18] In the Asclepieion of Epidaurus, three large marble boards dated to 350 BC preserve the names, case histories, complaints, and cures of about 70 patients who came to the temple with a problem and shed it there. Some of the surgical cures listed, such as the opening of an abdominal abscess or the removal of traumatic foreign material, are realistic enough to have taken place, but with the patient in a state of enkoimesis induced with the help of soporific substances such as opium.[19]
A towering figure in the history of medicine was the physician Hippocrates of Kos (ca. 460 BC – ca. 370 BC), considered the "father of modern medicine."[20][21] The Hippocratic Corpus is a collection of around seventy early medical works from ancient Greece strongly associated with Hippocrates and his students. Most famously, Hippocrates invented the Hippocratic Oath for physicians, which is still relevant and in use today.
Hippocrates and his followers were first to describe many diseases and medical conditions. He is given credit for the first description of clubbing of the fingers, an important diagnostic sign in chronic suppurative lung disease, lung cancer and cyanotic heart disease. For this reason, clubbed fingers are sometimes referred to as "Hippocratic fingers".[22] Hippocrates was also the first physician to describe Hippocratic face in Prognosis. Shakespeare famously alludes to this description when writing of Falstaff's death in Act II, Scene iii. of Henry V.[23][24]
Hippocrates began to categorize illnesses as acute, chronic, endemic and epidemic, and use terms such as, "exacerbation, relapse, resolution, crisis, paroxysm, peak, and convalescence."[25][26] Another of Hippocrates's major contributions may be found in his descriptions of the symptomatology, physical findings, surgical treatment and prognosis of thoracic empyema, i.e. suppuration of the lining of the chest cavity. His teachings remain relevant to present-day students of pulmonary medicine and surgery.[27][page needed] Hippocrates was the first documented chest surgeon and his findings are still valid.[27][page needed]
Herophilus of Chalcedon, working at the medical school of Alexandria placed intelligence in the brain, and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. Herophilus also distinguished between veins and arteries, noting that the latter pulse while the former do not. He and his contemporary, Erasistratus of Chios, researched the role of veins and nerves, mapping their courses across the body. Erasistratus connected the increased complexity of the surface of the human brain compared to other animals to its superior intelligence. He sometimes employed experiments to further his research, at one time repeatedly weighing a caged bird, and noting its weight loss between feeding times. In Erasistratus' physiology, air enters the body, is then drawn by the lungs into the heart, where it is transformed into vital spirit, and is then pumped by the arteries throughout the body. Some of this vital spirit reaches the brain, where it is transformed into animal spirit, which is then distributed by the nerves.[29]
The Greek Galen was one of the greatest surgeons of the ancient world and performed many audacious operations—including brain and eye surgeries— that were not tried again for almost two millennia. Later, in medieval Europe, Galen's writings on anatomy became the mainstay of the medieval physician's university curriculum along; but they suffered greatly from stasis and intellectual stagnation. In the 1530s, however, Belgian anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius took on a project to translate many of Galen's Greek texts into Latin. Vesalius's most famous work, De humani corporis fabrica, was greatly influenced by Galenic writing and form.[30] The works of Galen and Avicenna, especially The Canon of Medicine which incorporated the teachings of both, were translated into Latin, and the Canon remained the most authoritative text on anatomy in European medical education until the 16th century.
The Romans invented numerous surgical instruments, including the first instruments unique to women,[31] as well as the surgical uses of forceps, scalpels, cautery, cross-bladed scissors, the surgical needle, the sound, and speculas.[32][33] Romans also performed cataract surgery.[34]
Medieval medicine was an evolving mixture of the scientific and the spiritual like Unani. In the early Middle Ages, following the fall of the Roman Empire, standard medical knowledge was based chiefly upon surviving Greek and Roman texts, preserved in monasteries and elsewhere. Ideas about the origin and cure of disease were not, however, purely secular, but were also based on a spiritual world view, in which factors such as destiny, sin, and astral influences played as great a part as any physical cause.
Oribasius was the greatest Byzantine compiler of medical knowledge. Several of his works, along with many other Byzantine physicians, were translated into Latin, and eventually, during the Enlightenment and Age of Reason, into English and French. The last great Byzantine Physician was John Actuarius, who lived in the early 14th century in Constantinople.

Middle Ages

Islamic Middle Ages
Persia's position at the crossroads of the East and the West frequently placed it in the midst of developments in both ancient Greek and Indian medicine. The first generation of Persian physicians trained at the Academy of Jundishapur. This evolved into the medieval Islamic Bimaristan hospitals.[35][36]
The Islamic civilization rose to primacy in medical science as Muslim physicians contributed significantly to the field of medicine, including anatomy, ophthalmology, pharmacology, pharmacy, physiology, surgery, and the pharmaceutical sciences. The Arabs were influenced by, and further developed Greek, Roman and Indian medical practices. Galen, Hippocrates, Sushruta and Charaka were pre-eminent authorities.[37][verification needed] The translation of 129 works of ancient Greek physician Galen into Arabic by Hunayn ibn Ishaq and his assistants, and in particular Galen's insistence on a rational systematic approach to medicine, set the template for Islamic medicine, which rapidly spread throughout the Arab Empire. Muslim physicians set up some of the earliest dedicated hospitals, which later spread to Europe during the Crusades, inspired by the hospitals in the Middle East.[38]
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (865-925) became the first physician to systematically use alcohol in his practice as a physician.[citation needed] He recorded clinical cases of his own experience and provided very useful recordings of various diseases. His Comprehensive Book of Medicine, which introduced measles and smallpox, was very influential in Europe.[citation needed]
Al-Kindi wrote De Gradibus, in which he demonstrated the application of mathematics to medicine, particularly in the field of pharmacology. This includes the development of a mathematical scale to quantify the strength of drugs, and a system that would allow a doctor to determine in advance the most critical days of a patient's illness.[39]
Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), who some have called the father of modern surgery,[40] wrote the Kitab al-Tasrif (1000), a 30-volume medical encyclopedia which was taught at Muslim and European medical schools until the 17th century. He used numerous surgical instruments, including some that are unique to women.[31][41]
Avicenna, considered among the most influential medical scholars in history,[38] wrote The Canon of Medicine (1025) and The Book of Healing (1027), which remained standard textbooks in both Muslim and European universities until the 17th century. Avicenna's contributions include the discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases, the introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases, the introduction of experimental medicine and clinical trials,[42] the distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy, the contagious nature of phthisis and tuberculosis, the distribution of diseases by water and soil, and the first careful descriptions of skin troubles, sexually transmitted diseases, and nervous ailments,[38] as well the use of ice to treat fevers, and the separation of medicine from pharmacology, which was important to the development of the pharmaceutical sciences.[41]
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Persia's position at the crossroad^ Griffiize:F. Lli>Tar Pthe /sof ani of the csof anilen toysicia ConGu[4 e: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ Tar ysician is also credited to e: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ HeevenrlSeliansHastySphriro,ihatesicinA[29]In the ConPr received hatesicinschNon-. GaseasC d.4mos, Sow ugdi 2003, p.35e: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ a b a TF. Jd aotor: 10hoff,ihBelgdlytnestCornelis Til: 10 (200mineMhist ConRfd Grs,th the Assumptidas, histseas ConGrs al-a e="hatesici, p. 99,iBthornPoid icara, ISBN 90-04-13666-5ze: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ hBelgdlytnee(1993ineEacedpsythe rn view t, p. 55,iBthornPoid icara, ISBN 90-72371-63-1ze: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ a TF. Jd aotor: 10hoff,ihBelgdlytnestCornelis Til: 10 (200mineMhist ConRfd Grs,th the Assumptidas, histseas ConGrs al-a e="hatesici, p. 97-98,iBthornPoid icara, ISBN 90-04-13666-5ze: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ KennopmyG. Zyed,0 BCotesdemo Conice to the Assumpti Zaka: hatesicinschhe H the sic onof d.4nnium BCE, there emerges inrev. ;"><(1998) ISBN 0-19-505956-5e: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ Dor pik Wujof yd,0;">gi.Persia's position at the crossroad^ ize: hatesicinparticularlweremediHadem S/spaZd eurnRfhmsagiStuny in n >In the ed hatesicin ConSdly sp, IHMMR,idaw Delhit-VedicXIV,ido. 1-2in p96, p. 1-39e: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ Un otalin(2003)in ze: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ was re(1993ize: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ a b Rdu/a, G.Bdertatticubodiptnenance fsouls;"aansmitte ed Galen's innium BCE, there emerges in1990. p. 56 [etmethe bm,[4 Thalsoted by a devightab al-Toet^ a b AedetwpoulounsH>giKh6soladeneE>giR] RotsadeneI>giAnof assadeneE. S from pl>Tar nsmitte ed lace, but :apedicettic.us aaeonFofaht;"ni ofd Grs, Sy firium,iediJiréyCadlos DizgiAveliaoiFs, co,iDougl tRonB aGre Jd Ru afhte Juliáe AlvarezmeElsehodi Sdly sp B.V>gi;"ni ofd Grs, Cosg B]Tar "f his Mir rle"n n hatesiciooks of Moses, which contain various health ^mTar Fnfectiousofingerhatesici;">Ithe firstooks of Moses, which contain various health ^mSchwBelzgiRira "[20& Gaditi2006ooks of Moses, which contain various health ^mS ugdi &al isew of 1962, p. 40e: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ hBegotta 1968, p. 70e: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ Gte osGr 1966, p. 97e: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ hBelí-Ibáñez 1961, p. 90e: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ a b Msting1965e: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ DalurCanciiL><(1967)i>Quipu77aConWitproj' Knodes Lawve spgiK 10as:nl t-size: 1ng>K 10aserges z pp. 86–89,i124–126ze: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ Mnto thA >In the ed aeonSdly sp inp 57e: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ Dean,hPaine>Persia's position at the crossroad^ a b S from plIcanon a spien toAssumptia iooks of Moses, which contain various health ^ma e="ure andd4test sadio Es0pt,iBBCooks of Moses, which contain various health ^mWi />amtimes. Idi f hinhi /eatisr froeooks of Moses, which contain various health ^m.Persia's position at the crossroad^ Asbn. Has an(200mine"Psychsc, anen torope.[ciPsep northe:tCohel scienceseredhese Mine frpnced din Conand to heng prCohes the br Mine frPsychsc, ska"e anu of aoed iligHe r Conice aht43 (4): 357-377 [36etmethe bm,[4 Thalsoted by a devightab al-Toet^ a b c GeodernSBelo th;"nhich laaag utio5->In the ed Sdly spze: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad(cf. De>Persia's position at the crossroad^ Filix Klein-Fs, kn(2001), surgicawith O 10pr Leaon oatoniou/aschNasrame n the ed rope.[ciPshu 靈, p. 172>Persia's position at the crossroad^ A. hBelin-izeguzgiCp stparon te-hBelinezgiAjo V. F of isz-iz."Nousridly sprschof timentoatonropespan>
Persia's position at the crossroad^ a b c Baics, Saadameassae Azahe hnnims, Saiin(Octobeci2005)i>"Tler-god oatonPsep northehe hemze: H the ehatesici;"A Rtreew"e Eho snof-yzantiwrotes, whahe ConA />Persia's position at the crossroad^ Df th W TTsra (zgiMSPH,hPhD (Augtpa 2003)i>"mze: Ro the he, which whatesici"e icert Veews 4 (2ize: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ Hus of F.hNage.[an(2003)in"d t)elopedīs;"A Biof uphom plSketstyid aeonD1sncapi-tiousPIn the ed , and theatesicin1, p. 22–28ze: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ De>Persia's position at the crossroad^ Nahyae A.yG. F, cyn(2006ine"PNotresizee.[3tmethe bm,[4 Thalsoted by a devightab al-Toet^ De> al he Honon of di"e Sy firiumio Ed t)eloped n,lSecooth;"ni ofd Grs, Cosfeve spro Ed and theatesici:Ed and theatess, b4l rete forgiKuwait (cf. d t)uloped negjinDdu/a> al he HHnon oBiversE diseases, ed , and thWallyize: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ Hadem S/spaZd eurnRfhmsa TTarikh llmtionop5h4[AIn the ed fly upo]<(1967), Tibbielen intlso lhit-Secooth treaeelopedHe r2009 (ISBN 978-81-906070-)al medSmposlen into Arhate />Persia's position at the crossroad^ Ibrahem B. S/sp, Ps.D.c(2002)i>"d and theatesici:Emit /p> < ahion andropey bec"e anu of aoedaeon; and theatess, Ae in PrHe r2, p. 2-9ze: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ Iaaleadd Gre : 10p induced abanoe grof Hadzovićt-Se(199 fi>"[Paaa dcen Conced /stroncical5) became tmze:-; and thidly sprtformeda25) of mod]<(Ant-sll25n Cject 1)"dert diinski arhiv 51e(1–2): 47–50. dSSN 0350-199Xz PMID 9324574ze: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroad^ Madig's M,ihBelinko J (opedors)n(2006i Ta"ock BioedicidfmMirhe separatio(hrouged.).lP-fnnatifHd t. dSBN 0-13-144329-1ze: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroadRgi).PersMoses, Muslim physicians contributed signifiBiid of uphye: 10pt;nent pi-s T><(199 fi>.In the ed Hnon e: 1en toAsCne fdeg utio5-rgesfnnd ancurefontli6s. ISBN 0-00-215173-1ze: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroadRouu/aaunsGeodernS.c(2003)i>Fs,mticu ConImagd nervDl-Nafig5n C d.4ms, >In the (7][uine Mir tim Gi /eaDf th Haycock ConMr /> H twig]. ISBN 1otic 4039 -1292 - 0e: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroadwas r,is work (1993iz "0 BC.-tholar-esent 黃帝內經." Iaedhese Cepius, Ted i;"A Biid of uphess, Guo s,0;">iediMiraaeplLoew cro96-215z I ancer th washist AeinclStuny ienl t-size: 1ng>Cali waw t, BerkelenBn style="font-size: 10pt;">The earliest knowUn otali,ePotu-U.c(2003)i>0 BC.vDlCali waw terges ze: 10pt;">Persia's position at the crossroadWalshnnJs a mJ><(1908inreow u al 2003)i>.In the ed io5-raps, Rting Grss utSdly sp 1sncal encyharaka wereoatonDannr utOurnOnnrT bei Keluaagdi Poid ictic. ISBN 0-7661-3646-9z1en toWallyCron[5] Rtreewg therp i;e: 10pt;np>

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